Tyack Part IV and V
In the early nineteenth century racism was the deciding factor in the job market. Thus many African Americans were not able to obtained high level or white-collar jobs. “The job ceiling kept blacks mostly in unskilled, hard, dirty, and dead-end occupations that no one else wanted (p. 221). There was nothing in place for occupational development for those blacks who were skilled craftsmen. Instead there was a decline because the skilled craftsmen were barred from their trades by unions or by industrial developments that made the crafts obsolete.
African Americans were classified as of being of a low stature in both the work force and education force. Black children were refused entrance to commercial and academic schools because of low scores on IQ test even when their grades were superior. There was a link between what was taught in the classroom and the type of employment that will be obtained in the future.