DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.


Tyack Part 11 and 111

Part 2

“Convinced that there was one best system of education for urban populations, leading educators sought to discover it and implement it” (p. 28).  One new improvement in the teaching styles adapted by the reformers for teachers was the use of informational text to guide their effective impartation of knowledge.  The launching of text books into the educational system. A grading system was formed to separate students at different levels of academic progress. For example examinations were instituted to monitor the progress of the students.  And the result of the examination was used as a yard stick (measurement tool) to decide who will be promoted or held back also teachers’ were assessed by the results of the examination.   One such example is given on page 48 of the text where the superintendent published the results of the examinations in the newspaper, with the child’s score and school next to his name.  Parents could draw their own conclusions about the diligence of the child and the competence of the teacher, and they did.

 Educators Horace Mann and Samuel How were passionate about employing new methods’ of teaching, discipline and organization within the grading of students in the new well structured urban school system.


Part 3

This is a classic example of sexual discrimination where male teachers received a higher pay than their female counterparts, even when they were doing the same job. Teaching was one of the few respectable occupations open up to women, and the women were willing to work for less than the men. Therefore school boards employed women and paid them less because they benefitted by cutting cost. In 1870 men were making almost 3 times the amount women were making, for example men were making $35 compared to women making $12.(p. 62).  How much have changed centuries later? The answer is women are still being under paid in today’s society.

It is so evident one does not need a magnifying glass to see that this is a man’s world dating back to colonial times where men held the prestigious positions in the church.  They are still getting leadership positions because as the male they are considered to be stronger. And the women because of their gender are being denied positions and are kept on the lower rung of the ladder. The men remains higher up the ladder and are in charge of making the policies and decisions for the school. Even though it is true that more women are in the teaching profession than the men and may even become principals does not change the fact that men are the head figure in today’s leading professions.  


DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.