Project 3: Test Development
Medgar Evers College
Jean Piaget was born August 9th, 1896 in Switzerland. Jean William Fritz Piaget was a Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher known for his epistemological studies with children. Piaget is known for his theory of cognitive development and epistemological view. When the two are viewed together they are called Genetic Epistemology. Piaget defined genetic epistemology as “discovering the roots of the different varieties of knowledge, since its elementary forms, following to the next levels, including also the scientific knowledge,” in which he explained in his book Genetic Epistemology. Piaget’s epistemology is a branch of philosophy that is concerned with the origin, nature, extent, and limits of human knowledge. Piaget was more interested not only in the nature of thought, but he wanted to know how it develops and understand how genetics impact this process. In his earlier work, Piaget worked with Binet’s intelligence tests which led him to conclude that children think differently than adults. Based upon this observation it inspired his interest to understand how knowledge grows throughout childhood. Piaget then suggested children sort the knowledge they acquire through their prior experiences and interactions. Piaget categorized this grouping as schema or known as prior knowledge. When children learn knew information it can either be integrated into prior knowledge or lodged through revising and existing schema or creating an entirely new category of information.
Piaget was heavily involved with the education of children. Jean Piaget was noted as “the great pioneer of the constructivist theory of knowing.” Today, Piaget is widely known for his research on children’s cognitive development. He studied three of his own children and he created a theory that described the stages that children pass through in the development of intelligence and formal thought processes. For Piaget, cognitive development was a progressive reorganization of mental processes as a result of biological maturation and environmental experience. Children build an understanding of the physical world around them. They also experience many differences from what they already know and the things they discover in their environment. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development covers four stages, the sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational.
In the sensorimotor stage, the age range is from birth to two. Stage one consist of the infant’s knowledge of the world is limited to his or her sensory perceptions and motor activities. During this stage one’s behavior is limited to simple motor responses caused by sensory stimuli. In the sensorimotor stage, schemes are based largely on behaviors and perceptions. They cannot immediately think of things that are not directly in front of them. So at the given moment and time they only focus on things that are in front of them. Preoperational is the stage that follows next, where children are from ages two to six/seven. During this stage they are self-oriented and egocentric. In this stage, children can now think and talk about things beyond their immediate experience. Hence, when in this stage they do not yet reason in logical, adult-like ways. The third stage, concrete operations appears around age six/seven. Children have adult-like logic which appears but is limited to reasoning about concrete, in other words real-life situations. When the children are in this stage they can classify distinctions between one’s own and others’ perspectives. They can recognize that one’s own thoughts and feelings may be different from those of others and do not necessarily reflect reality as much. Commonly, children in the concrete stage continue to develop their newly acquired logical thinking capabilities throughout the elementary school years. In the final stage, formal operations, children enter this stage around age 11 or 12. In this stage children’s logical reasoning processes are applied to abstract ideas as well as concrete objects and situations.
Piaget’s ideas came to mind when I thought of formulating my assessment. He stated children going through this stage can understand the differences between their own views as opposed to someone else’s. I want them to distinguish the differences or similarities they might have with another culture. They will be able to discuss realistic like events that transpired for them in their lifetime. Students will be exposed to talk about how their environments are alike or different. They learn in social studies what culture is and what it consist of. So they will be familiar with learning about their past and being able to relate the past to similar or different that is happening now.
The learning target of my assessment is to teach students who were the first inhabitants of New York State and why did they decide to live in New York State. My assessment plan is to gear students to write an extended written response assessment. I will create two prompts to assess the student’s ability to develop their ideas and content. They will also be assessed on their mechanics and if they developed details from the video to support their writing.
I will ask students: “Has anyone’s family moved to New York State from another place, if so, from where and why?”
I will begin by asking the students do they know who the first inhabitants of New York State were.
I will ask them do they have an idea why they decided to settle in New York State.
I will inform students that they are going to learn about the Iroquois Indians.
I will review the vocabulary words with the student’s.
I will show the students a video on the Iroquois Indians.
They will take notes and after discuss with a partner what they learned from the video they did not know beforehand.
Students will observe the landscape, living conditions, clothing worn, and anything that stands out to them based upon what they viewed from the video.
Students will write an extended written response to the prompt that is given.
Name: ___________________________ Date: _______________________
Direction: Students will write a personal narrative. Essay should be a minimum of two paragraphs with five – seven sentences in length.
A. Write a short story as an Iroquois child of the 1600s.
B. Write a short story as a modern-day child of Iroquoian descent.
Student’s extended written response will be assessed with the follow rubric.
Student’s writing has no any details from the video
Student’s writing developed 1-2 details from the video and/or supporting materials; may begin to answer the prompt but are not adequately developed
Student’s writing developed 2-3 details from the video and/or supporting materials; but are adequately developed to answer the prompt
Student’s writing developed 4 or more details from the video and/or supporting materials; fully answered the prompt
Student’s writing has no paragraphs, more than 4 spellings errors, and punctuation errors are present
Student’s writing has 1-2 paragraph(s), 3-4 spelling errors and a few of punctuation errors
Student’s writing has 2 paragraphs, but may not include 5-7 sentences, 2-3 spelling errors and a few of punctuation errors
Student’s writing has 2 or more paragraphs with 5-7 sentences per paragraph, no spelling errors, and no punctuation errors
McDevitt, T. M., & Ormrod, J. E. (2010).Child development and education (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill.
Stiggins, R. J. (2006). Classroom assessment for student learning: doing it right -- using it well. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Education, Inc.